The Philippines is one of the 17 countries in the world with biological mega-diversity (eng. megadiverse countries), many thousands of biological species known to science live on the tropical islands, in addition, the Philippines is the place where most of all new species of animals and plants are discovered on Earth, and species are by no means small: recently a two-meter lizard unknown to science or a carnivorous plant that can hunt has been discovered on rats.
The seawater off the coast of the Philippines has the highest biodiversity in the world.
Table of contents
- Botanical description
- Procurement of raw materials
- Chemical composition
- Pharmacological properties
- Application in traditional medicine
Mallotus Filipino is not a pharmacopoeial plant and is not used in official medicine. However, the plant is widely used in homeopathy and Ayurvedic medicine in the composition of anthelmintic drugs, as well as as a laxative.
The pharmacy name for the raw material of mallotus: hairs of pubescence of Kamala fruits (Kamala, or Rotuerae glandula, formerly Glandulae Rottierae).
Contraindications and side effects
There are no contraindications to the use of Filipino mallotus, however, experts strongly advise against using the plant for medicinal purposes if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or intending to treat a child.
In the Philippines, this plant is called Banato, and a yellow and orange dye is made from its seeds. Such an environmentally friendly dye based on Philippine mallotus is most suitable for dyeing soaps and natural cosmetics. It can also be used for dyeing wool and silk, but keep in mind that when washed, the color will be unstable and will lose saturation. Therefore, to increase the durability, it must be mixed with other dyes.
In India, Mallotus Filipino is part of natural ecological cosmetics.
Kamala powder is a red dye that can be used to dye hair red or burgundy mixed with natural or colorless henna.
In other areas
Mallotus Filipino is used in Ayurvedic preparations, spices and as a food coloring.
In the food industry
Philippine Mallotus Fruit Powder is used as an antioxidant in ghee and vegetable oil, and as a light color for foods such as butter and cheese.
Mallotus Filipino (lat.Mallotus philippensis.) Is a species of the genus Mallotus (lat.Mallotus), of the family Euphorbiaceae or Euphorbiaceae (lat.Euphorbiaceae).
Mallotus is a large dioecious shrub or tree, reaching a height of up to 10 m. The leaves of the plant are alternate, narrowed at the top and base.
During flowering, the plant throws out small flowers that are collected in inflorescences. Flowers are small, staminate - in panicles, pistillate - in spike-shaped racemes.
The fruit is a tricuspid capsule, densely covered with characteristic red hairs and glands, which are the subject of collection and medical use. Inside the fruit are hemispherical or ovoid seeds, which are promoted by birds to spread effectively.
The homeland of the Philippine Malllotus is the tropics of Asia. The plant is also found in East and Southeast Asia, North and East Australia, Fiji and New Caledonia.
Procurement of raw materials
The raw material of the Philippine mallotus is Kamala, which is the red glands of the plant removed from the fruit together with hairs. To obtain raw mallotus, the fruits of the plant are folded into a basket or sieve. They put paper or cloth under them and begin to shake. At the same time, the glands and hairs are erased from the capsules and fall onto the litter in the form of a fine red powder. Kamala is odorless and tasteless. Also, kamala can be washed from the fruit with your hands and shaken off on the covered sheets.
The chemical composition of the plant has hardly been studied. It is only known that the fruits of the Philippine mallotus contain 10-20% rottlerin and ozoterin, which have antihelminthic properties, and 80% resin, which has a laxative effect. Also, the glands of the plant contain red pigment, essential oil, tannins and protein substances.
A research group from Osaka University, Japan, in April 2016, conducted research on the polyphenol contained in mallotus. Empirically, it was found that the substance promotes the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the bloodstream and their accumulation in damaged tissues, improving wound healing.
Also, scientists have found that the ethanol extract of the Philippine mallotus bark, due to its unique structure, increases cell mobilization by activating the enzymes that surround MSC membranes.
The authors of the study report that the substance cinnamtannin B-1, which is part of mallotus, also has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and has a protective effect on damaged tissues and microenvironments of wound surfaces.
It is assumed that the results obtained will be used for the treatment of mesenchymal stem cells for various wounds and skin diseases, including diabetic ulcers.
Application in traditional medicine
Mallotus Filipino is used in folk medicine as a specific anthelmintic against tapeworms. Traditional healers used the resin contained in the plant as a laxative. Also, on the basis of this plant, external ointments were prepared for some skin diseases.
Mallotus is widely used in folk medicine in India and the entire Asian region against intestinal tape parasites (including fish tapeworm) and other helminths.
In traditional Asian medicine, Kamala is used as an oral contraceptive and to treat skin conditions.
In traditional medicine of the countries of South and Southeast Asia, mallotus is valued not only for its anthelmintic properties, folk healers also attribute bactericidal, antitumor, antispasmodic, carminative, astringent, wound healing and laxative properties to the plant.
In Ayurvedic practice, the infusion of mallotus leaves is used as a cooling agent.
1. Great Medical Encyclopedia / Ch. ed. B. V. Petrovsky. - 3rd ed. - M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1988. - T. 29: Additional. - S. VII, 3, 388. - 150,000 copies.
2. Journal "Chemistry of Plant Raw Materials". Issue № 1 / 2003. Dyeing plants of Altai and adjacent territories. Author Korolyuk E.A.
3. Muravyova DA Tropical and subtropical medicinal plants. - M .: Medicine, 1983 .-- 336 p.
In general, the wildlife of the Philippines is characterized by high endemism, with many species found only in the Philippine Islands and nowhere else.
Flora of the philippines
Forests cover about 40% of the Philippines. Among the huge variety of Philippine plants, at least 9,250 species are endemic. There are not only endemic species here, but entire families not found anywhere else in the world. Two-thirds of the 150 native palm species and 700 of the thousand orchid species can be found in the Philippines alone.
In areas of constant moisture, in forests and on hills up to 800 m above sea level, huge trees from the dipterocarp family dominate. Higher up can be oak forests with palm undergrowth. At heights from 1 to 2 km, there are purely pine forests.
Mangrove forests are widespread in the coastal strip.
Narra is officially recognized as the national tree of the Philippines, valued for its wood (paduk, amboina).
Despite the general diversity of species, mammals in the Philippines are surprisingly few (less than 200 species).
From large - two subspecies of the Asian buffalo - carabao and tamarau. There are several species of deer, deer, several pigs (including a bearded pig), a porcupine, a Filipino wool wing, a pangolin, and rodents. The primates are represented by five species of macaques, the tarsier and the Bornean slow loris (in the Sulu Islands). There are numerous bats (about 60 species), including large fruit bats - kalongs. From the cat-like in the Philippines, there is a Bengal cat (the size of a domestic cat), a civet, and a mongoose. Small predators are the otter and the smelly badger (referred to as skunk).
Of the aquatic mammals, the dugongs are interesting. Several species of whales and dolphins can be found in Philippine waters.
Birds of the Philippines
The Philippines is home to at least 612 bird species. The avifauna has similarities on the one hand, Malaysian, on the other - with the Australian. 194 bird species are endemic to the Philippines, including the country's national bird - the large and beautiful Filipino eagle, the monkey-eating harpy. The islands are home to 13 species of parrots, 33 species of pigeons, 40 species of snipe, 25 cuckoo, 17 owls, 16 kingfishers, 10 hornbills, etc.
Filipino reptiles and amphibians
The Philippines is characterized by an abundance of reptiles and amphibians. In total, 332 of their species are known, of which 215 are endemic. Only 14 out of 114 Filipino snakes are venomous. The Philippines is home to the world's largest ridged crocodiles. The smaller Filipino freshwater (Mindorian) crocodile is under threat of total annihilation. There are many turtles, lizards, including geckos on the islands.
Fish of the Philippines
Of the 280 species of Filipino freshwater fish, 65 are found only in the Philippines, for example, freshwater sardinella lives in only one place on Earth - the crater of the Big Taal volcano.
More than 2 thousand species of fish are found in the seas, many of which are of commercial importance.
Insects of the Philippines
Science knows about 21 thousand species of insects that live in the Philippines. A third of the 915 species of butterflies are endemic to the country. In the Philippine Islands, you can find one of the world's largest butterflies, the Attacus atlas, with a wingspan of almost 30 cm.
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Main genus: Paphiopedilum
Philippines. These plants are widespread in the Philippine Islands, from Luzon in the north, in the northern part of Mindanao, and to Palawan in the west. Paphiopedilum Filipino grows on the remains of fallen leaves in crevices of limestone rocks, often in areas open to the sun at an altitude of up to 500 m above sea level.
Climate in natural habitats:
- Fixed temperature range from + 18 ° C to + 34 ° C.
- The average humidity is over 80% throughout the year.
- Precipitation from 38 mm. in April up to 376 mm. in July.
- Average temperatures (day / night) from + 26.7 ° C / + 21.1 ° C in January to + 30.0 ° C / + 23.6 ° C in May.
Description of the plant:
Plant size and type:
Large orchid 20-50 cm high. The growths form tight groups.
The short stem is hidden by the bases of two-row leaves.
Each shoot grows up to nine hanging or arcuate curved leaves 20-50 cm long. The leaves are very thick, with rounded or blunt tips. The surface of the leaf blade is shiny, green. A convex central vein is clearly visible on the underside of the leaf.
Peduncle up to 50 cm long. Covered with purple hairs.
Each inflorescence has two to five flowers, the diameter of which is 8.5 cm, and taking into account the long hanging petals, it can reach 20 cm.The upper sepal is broadly ovate, pointed, white with purple-brown longitudinal stripes and delicate hairs along the edges. The lower sepal is similar to the upper one, but it is narrower and with greenish stripes. Long hanging ribbon-like petals are twisted several times along the entire length and are covered with warts along the upper edge, from which tufts of cilia grow. The yellow color at the base of the petals turns to dark red or purple, and then fades to light green at the tips. The lip is helmet-shaped, pale yellow or brownish with brownish-green veins.
Flowering period: January to September with a maximum in May.
The plant is thermophilic. In summer, the average daytime temperature is + 29 ° C, the average night temperature is + 23-24 ° C, which gives a daily temperature drop of 6 ° C. The warmest weather is observed in spring.
25,000-35,000 suites. The plant requires bright, slightly diffused light and protection from direct sunlight. Florists claim that this species needs 10-11 hours of bright light daily to initiate flowering. Constant strong ventilation is required.
In the habitats of these orchids, most of the year there is a lot of rainfall, the amount of which decreases only in late winter and early spring, when a 2-3-month semi-dry period begins. In cultivation, the plant needs to be watered abundantly for most of the year, so that the substrate has time to dry out slightly between waterings. Although this species can grow in the old substrate, the plant thrives better if the substrate is not decomposed and soggy.
This plant needs to be fed weekly with 1 / 10–1 / 4 of the recommended orchid fertilizer dose. During the period of active growth, fertilizer with a high nitrogen content should be applied, and in the middle of summer, switch to fertilizer with a high phosphorus content in order to improve flowering and strengthen young growth before winter. To avoid salinization of the substrate, it is recommended to periodically rinse it.
This Paphiopedilum grows well in a variety of substrates, so you can use any loose, well-conductive substrate that will partially retain moisture, but not get wet. After a few years, the orchid grows strongly, therefore, so that the upper part does not outweigh it and does not drop the pot, it is better to plant the plant in a heavy, shallow ceramic pot with a wide bottom.
This orchid can also grow in the old substrate, so it can be transplanted every 2-3 years. They do this at any time of the year, but best of all in the fall or spring. Since new growths do not form roots within 1–2 years, the plant must be divided carefully so that each division has growths with roots.
About 80–85% most of the year, decreasing by 1–2 months in late winter and spring to almost 75%.
In winter, the average daytime temperature is + 27-28 ° C, the average nighttime temperature is + 21-22 ° C, which gives a daily temperature difference of 6 ° C. But this is data from weather stations located on the coast, and in the habitats of Paphiopedilum, Philippine temperatures in winter can drop to + 16 ° C. In late winter and early spring, during 2–3 months, little precipitation falls. In culture, the plant also requires less water in winter. The substrate should dry out a little between waterings and remain dry for a longer time. Top dressing should be reduced until spring, when abundant watering resumes. The plant needs bright lighting to initiate flowering.