Bird Families

Oenanthe melanoleuca)


Other names - The stove is ordinary. Companion.

Latin name -Oenantheoenanthe
English name -NorthernWheatear

Usage Information

Photo "Black-eared Wheat (Oenanthe melanoleuca), Crete" can be used for personal and commercial purposes according to the conditions of the purchased Royalty-free license. The image is available for download in high resolution quality up to 3963x2642.

  • The country: Greece
  • Location: Outside
  • Image orientation: Horizontal
  • Season: Winter
  • Times of Day: Day
  • About photo stock
  • Our plans and prices
  • Business solutions
  • Depositphotos Blog
  • Referral program
  • affiliate program
  • API program
  • Vacancies
  • New images
  • Free Images
  • Supplier registration
  • Sell ​​stock photos
  • English
  • Deutsch
  • Français
  • Español
  • Russian
  • Italiano
  • Português
  • Polski
  • Nederlands
  • 日本語
  • Česky
  • Svenska
  • 中文
  • Türkçe
  • Español (Mexico)
  • Ελληνικά
  • 한국어
  • Português (Brasil)
  • Magyar
  • Ukrainian
  • Bahasa Indonesia
  • ไทย
  • Norsk
  • Dansk
  • Suomi
  • Live chat
  • Contact us
  • Reviews about Depositphotos
Read us
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • VK
Available inAvailable in

© 2009-2021. Depositphotos Corporation, USA. All rights reserved.

YouTube video

We also saw them on the Maryinsky vacant lots in the Chaginsky industrial zone. Their nests were also observed there.

Type: Ordinary heater

Imitates in singing. Lives in meadows, on the outskirts of settlements. Avoids the forest.

The stove is 14.5 - 15.5 cm long and weighs from 22 to 28 g. The wingspan is from 26 to 32 cm. In spring and summer males in breeding plumage have a gray crown and back, a black stripe through the eyes, which stretches to the cheeks and there expands slightly, which looks like a mask. Above the black stripe, a white stripe passes through the eyes.

The breast is ocher, the belly is white, the wings are black. Females are colored similarly, only less contrasting, since the black mask on the face is not so pronounced and the wings are more brown than black.

Birds in flight are easily recognizable by their characteristic black and white tail coloration. The white tail has a black T-shaped pattern at the end. In the fall, males look more like females.

The scream is a sibilant chiit, often sung, slightly towering over the rocks, chirping and grinding lines.

The stoves eat mainly insects, but also spiders, snails and earthworms. In autumn, they also feed on berries.

The stoves are common throughout Europe, it is the only species of the family that is also found in northern Europe. Mostly they are found in the mountains, but they also inhabit other landscapes, preferring open, rocky places. They hibernate in Africa. In addition to Europe, they are found in Canada and Alaska, in Greenland and Siberia.

A flat cup nest is located in rock crevices or between stones. Clutch contains 5 - 6 eggs. Incubation lasts about 14 days, then both parents feed the chicks for another 15 days.

Male in spring and summer is ash-gray with black wings and a wide stripe across the eye, white belly. The female, juveniles and the male are buffy-brownish in autumn, the throat and breast are reddish, the upper tail and abdomen are white.

The song is basically a set of imitations of different birds and other sounds, the cry is a sharp “check”.

Inhabits rocky tundra, meadows, steppes, on the outskirts of cities and towns, abandoned construction sites and wastelands overgrown with weeds.

The habitat of the stove in different parts of our country is quite diverse. But everywhere she avoids forest areas. According to M. A. Menzbir, “she needs cliffs, ravines and ditches, bordering roads, bare, somewhat mountainous, clayey and rocky places, at least arable land.

But it never nests in forest ravines, and in general, the more open and barren the area, the more likely it is to meet a stone stove here ”. In Murmansk, the kamenka lives in the coastal zone and on the islands among the rocky coastal placers.

In Belarus, it nests on large logs (in wood), near roads and dwellings. In the Caucasus, it rises into the mountains to the border of eternal snows, and in Transbaikalia it occurs along the rocky bare slopes of gorges and along mountain roads.

Kamenka nesting sites are quite typical. It nests on rocky placers, open fires, wastelands, along large roads with heaps of stones, in earthen cliffs with cracks and voids, in which birds arrange nests.

The nest is hidden in cracks between stones, in cracks in clay cliffs or stone walls, in woodpiles of firewood, in the walls of pits and ditches, in natural earthen voids. As a rule, it is located close to the entrance to the shelter.

The nest is made of dry stalks of cereals and other herbaceous plants, sometimes with an admixture of a small amount of roots, moss, sticks and rot. The tray is flat, lined with wool and hair, and often feathers.

The nest looks like a carelessly made flat cup with loose and fragile walls.

Clutch of 4-7 pale blue eggs, usually spotless or slightly brownish speckled. Egg sizes: (20-22) x (15-16) mm.

Birds arrive in the middle zone of our country around the end of April, and from mid-May they start nesting. Incubation lasts about 13 days, and about the same time the chicks are fed by their parents in the nest. In the second half of June, you can see already flying young birds. Departure for wintering starts in August.

Distributed throughout the country, except for most of the Far East.

Flies to Africa and India for the winter.

Of all the stoves, this type is most common in Northern Europe, Asia and America. Our wheatear nests almost all over the country - from the shores of the Arctic Ocean and its islands (in Murmansk, Yamal, Novaya Zemlya) to the Caucasus, the Kazakh steppes and Transbaikalia, and to the east - to the Chukotka Peninsula (to the Anadyr River).

The male of the wheatear is ash-gray above (with a white forehead), below it is white, with a slight yellowishness on the chest. Wings, end of tail, legs and beak are black. But the most characteristic sign of coloration is a distinct black stripe across the eye (“mask”), a bright white upper tail and white spots on the sides of the tail (from the white bases of the tail feathers).

When the bird, twitching its half-spread tail, flips along a deserted road on heaps of stones or rubble, it flashes these white parts of its plumage.

The female wheatear is very different from the male: she is yellowish-brown, darker on top, reddish on the bottom. But the uppertail and tail are the same as those of the male. Chicks are reddish-variegated. The length of the bird is 15-17 centimeters.

The stove got its second name - "fellow traveler" for its manner of flipping along the deserted road in front of the traveler. At the same time, you can observe with what liveliness the bird grabs from the ground or catches insects in the air.

Worried, she repeats the abrupt cry of check-check-check. ”, Quickly lifts his tail and bows. In the air, the stove often makes unexpected jumps and figures, and not only in pursuit of a fly or a beetle, but simply from its natural liveliness. In the spring, males are especially distinguished by this.

With a hurried chirping song, they flutter in the air, chase females and chase a rival neighbor. Kamenka are also intolerant (during the nesting period) to other closely related species, for example, to the pied plover, expelling it from their possessions.

In the spring, only males appear on nesting places, and only after a few days - females. The flight takes place at night. In the middle lane, this happens approximately at the end of April, and from the middle of May the birds have already started nesting.

The nest is always hidden in an inconspicuous place - among stones, in cracks in clay cliffs or stone walls, in the walls of pits and burrows. Sometimes the birds dig a hole themselves, up to half a meter long.

The nest is loose and fragile, made of dry straws of cereals, thin roots, wool, down and feathers. 4-7 testicles are pale blue in color, mostly without spots or with slight brownish speckling. Their length is 20-22 mm.

Kamenka nests suffer greatly from various small predators and rodents attacking both eggs and chicks. Old birds sit so stubbornly on the nest that sometimes they themselves become a victim of weasel or ermine.

Incubation lasts about thirteen days, and about the same time the chicks are fed by their parents on the nest. Flies, grasshoppers, small butterflies, caterpillars and a wide variety of beetles - ground beetles, leaf beetles - are eaten. The stoves catch up with creeping insects with fast jumps, they seize the flying ones on the fly, like flycatchers.

Broods keep together with their parents until autumn, but in the southern regions the birds hatch twice in summer, and in this case, the first brood is likely to break up. At the end of summer and autumn, the wheats are found in small flocks in the same nesting areas, and in the north, in August, they begin to migrate for wintering.

Text of the scientific work on the topic "Materials for the study of Oenanthe heaters in the Middle Araks depression (Azerbaijan)"

Russian Ornithological Journal 2010, Volume 19, Express Issue 575: 975-985

Materials for the study of Oenanthe heaters in the Middle Araks depression (Azerbaijan)

O. V. Mitropolsky

Received March 29, 2010

In the period from April 9 to May 30, 1969, observations were carried out in the Sredne-Araksin depression within the former Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan). The work took place mainly in the lower belt of the mountains bordering the basin from the north, at an altitude of 700-1500 m above sea level. Separate trips are made to the higher parts of the mountains. In the study area, 6 types of heaters were recorded.

Gold-tailed wheatear Oenanthe chrysopygia (De Filippi, 1863)

The golden-tailed kamenka inhabits a limited area within the extreme southeast of the former Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, but here it is quite common. Recorded in the vicinity of the village of Aza (15 km east of the city of Julfa) and north of the village of Diza. The habitats of this species are peculiar - they are sterile steep rocky cliffs with strongly eroded outcrops of bedrock sedimentary rocks and a mass of detrital material, interspersed with narrow crushed valleys with wormwood-ephemeral vegetation, strongly burnt out at the end of May. They nest on rocky slopes, and feed mainly on their foot. Where the outcrops of bedrock are piled one above the other in ledges, the golden-goose stones are kept only along the lowest ledge. In vertical respect, they occupy the lowest parts of the basin, not rising above 750-800 m above sea level.

Golden-tailed wheatears were observed during the period 22-30 May, when the birds finished feeding the chicks of the first brood and were preparing for the second breeding cycle. The first laying of this stove occurs in late April - early May. So, in the nest from May 24, there were 5 chicks of about 4 days of age, with open auditory canals and beginning to open their eyes (their weight is 10.7, 10.5, 10.3, 10.1, and 9.3 g). The chicks were almost the same age. Adult birds feeding poorly flying short-tailed fledglings were recorded on May 22 (2 broods), and on May 26 and 29 the juveniles already flew quite well, although they had not yet fed independently.

The overwhelming majority of pairs of golden-tailed wheatears breed twice a season. Thus, the female from May 22, which was still feeding juveniles, had enlarged follicles (up to 4.2 mm in diameter) and a well-developed oviduct in the ovary. A similar condition of the ovaries (follicles 2.0-2.5 mm) was observed in females from May 25 and 29, which, in addition, had dry hen spots after incubating the first clutch. In addition, on May 25, a female hatching a clutch was obtained, and from May 29, in addition to a finished egg in the oviduct, the female had a yolk with a diameter of 10.3 mm and 4 burst follicles in the ovary, the rest of the follicles are small. The full clutch of this female was supposed to end on May 30 and contain 5 eggs. A bird building a nest was observed on May 24, the first egg was laid in it on May 28 (on May 30, on the last day of our field work, there were 3 eggs in the nest).

The presence of the second breeding cycle, in addition to the above materials on the dissection of females from broods, is also indicated by the following observation of May 29. The male protected and supplemented the brood of flying young, while the female was building a nest at this time, often arriving with a bunch of blades of grass in her beak. Before flying into the nest, she worried about me. Here she was constantly overtaken by young people, begging for food. The female thrust a bunch of blades of grass into their open beaks and flew away for a new portion. This continued so regularly that I was not even able to track down the construction site of the new nest. This observation shows that care for the young of the first litter, like in a number of other wheatear species, is assigned mainly to the male, while the female begins the next clutch.

Testes of 4 males caught on May 25-29, maximally developed.

Two nests found were located on small ledges of barren rocky slopes, high enough from the foot. Both nests are built on the ground in low niches under separate stones 25 cm away from the entrance. Quite a lot (up to 100) stones are laid in front of the nest and along the niche. At one of the nests, a flying adult bird with a pebble in its beak was observed 4 days before laying. Nests of both the first and second clutches are built only from plant material, which is coarser at the base, softer and softer in the tray. The tray is completely woven, but not strong, the grown chicks destroy it. The dimensions (mm) of the tray at the nest with incomplete clutch are 75x75, the depth of the tray is 32, and at the nest with chicks -75x80 and 35, respectively. The niche in which the nest is arranged is small; the tray occupies it almost completely.

The newly laid eggs of the golden-tailed wheatear are uniformly white, oblong-ovoid.

The plumage of fledglings of O. chrysopygia is completely devoid of spotting, only the buffy tops of the smallest wing coverts create

the impression of a spotted pattern. The entire head, back and throat are solid gray, but the throat is slightly lighter. Ear coverts are brown. All wing feathers, except for the distal primary flight feathers, have wide buffy edges. Uppertail and rudder bases are rusty-buffy; tail ends have wide buffy edges. The abdomen is buffy, the legs are light, the oral cavity (as in adults) is yellow. In fledglings, a small, downwardly bent hook is clearly expressed on the beak.

Weight of adult males from May 25-29: 19.5, 20.5, 20.5 and 20.5 g. Weight of adult females feeding chicks and preparing for the second clutch (May 22-29): 18.5, 21.5, 21.5 and 23.0, with an egg in the oviduct (29 May): 27.5 g. Weight of short-tailed fledglings (May 22) 22.0, flying juveniles (2 females from May 29 from one brood): 20.5 and 21.5 g.

Notes on taxonomy. L.S. Stepanyan (1969, 1971, 1978), examining the issue of subspecies of golden-tailed wheatears on the territory of the former USSR, showed that wheatens from Transcaucasia are taxonomically not equivalent to wheats from Badakhshan (Tajikistan). The former were designated O. xanthoprymna chrysopygia De Fillipi, 1863, the latter as O. x. kingi Hume, 1871. In the collection of the Tashkent University, where all my Transcaucasian collections were transferred, 20 copies are currently preserved. of this species from Badakhshan, Iran, Kopet-Dag (1 specimen dated August 19, 1901, Dur-badam) and the Sredne-Araksin depression collected by N.A. Zarudny, R.N. Mecklenburtsev and the author.

The results of the analysis of these materials are reduced to the following. Small differences in shades of plumage between the populations of Badakhshan and Transcaucasia, indicated by L.S. Stepanyan (1971), when comparing birds caught in the same season, are caught. However, of the five characters indicated to distinguish between chrysopygia and kingi, only two (coloration of the upper body and upper tail) can be recognized as really real. As for the red color on tail feathers and undertail, even our limited material allows us to say that if males have very slight differences in shades for these characters, then females practically do not differ. Underbody coloration (chest, abdomen, flanks) is highly dependent on plumage wear and can be used with great care. This is especially evident when studying the materials of N.A. Za-ore from Iran (mainly autumn-winter collections). Viewing Iranian golden-tailed wheatears (13 specimens) showed that most of them (12 specimens) are easily identified as chrysopygia, but one, a male from December 7, 1904 from Isfahan, differs well from the rest by a very light underside and, what is especially noticeable, more light, with a gray-blue tinge of the head, on which clear specks of dark centers of feathers are noticeable. This specimen is especially in contrast to another male from Isfahan dated December 6, 1904, that is, taken almost simultaneously.

The first male has a red tail color; uppertail and undertail are much lighter. The differences between these two males are sharper than those of the nesting birds of Badakhshan and Transcaucasia. The male from December 7 can be easily recognized as a wintering representative of the N ^^ form, while the rest of the birds belong to the nominative subspecies. It is possible that the differences between the eastern and western populations of golden-mouthed wheathers (kingi and chrysopygia) in fresh plumage are more significant than in breeding, worn-out. It may be noted that the kingi form was described from an autumn specimen in fresh plumage.

There are differences in the size of the two specified subspecies, although the limit values ​​overlap. The average wing length of c ^ ubopu-gia - males 90.9, females 87.5 mm, kingi - males 92.1, females 93.0 mm. The increase in the length of the wing of the kingi form (according to the birds of Badakhshan) occurs due to the lengthening of the two distal primary flight feathers, which is well traced in the analysis of the wing formula. So, in all three birds from Badakhshan 2> 3 (excluding the rudimentary flight feather), while in birds of Transcaucasia and Iran (only 10 males and 9 females) this ratio was found only twice, in 12 birds 2 = 3, and in 5 birds 3> 2. The ratio of the 1st and 5th flywheels is similar. In birds of Badakhshan 1> 5 in all cases, and in chryБOpygia (19 specimens) 1> 5 in 12 cases, 1 = 5 in 5 cases and 1 Are you tired of banners? You can always turn off ads.