Bird Families

Eastern white-eyed or invisible bird


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Sopa (white-eyed) is a rare representative of the carp family. This typical river fish can be called Russian, because it lives in the rivers of the middle zone of this country. The fish feeds on both plant and animal food.

The sopa has several names, the most famous of which are white-eyed, eyeball, or pop-eye. White-eyed her name because of the color of the iris of the eyes. This fish has it white. The name of the goggle or goggle-eyed, the fish got because of the unusual huge goggle eyes.

The fish has a certain resemblance to bream, silver bream. Only an experienced fisherman will be able to distinguish this fish by its appearance. The fish lives in rivers with strong currents and this has influenced its appearance. Its body is not as tall as that of its relatives, which allows the fish to maneuver in the current. The fish lives in a small population, so it cannot be bred artificially. Mass sale of the meat of this fish is not possible, but it is distinguished by its incredible tenderness and taste. Sopa is a rather rare fish in the hands of a fisherman, so catching it is undoubtedly a joy.

Sop size

The sopa is small and does not differ in trophy performance. The average length of the fish is from 30 to 40 centimeters, weighing 500-800 grams. There are cases of catching a larger white-eyed, weighing up to 1 kilogram, but this is rare.

The life span of a fish is on average 8-10 years. It grows and develops at an average pace. The biggest gains in length and weight are in the first year of life. During this time, the fish grows up to 5 centimeters. After the 5th year of life, growth rates decrease, but the mass of the fish increases. At the age of three years, the fish weighs about 70 grams, at 4 years old - 150 grams, and after 5 years its weight reaches 400-500 grams. At the age of five, the fish is ready to reproduce. As a rule, its length during this period is about 20-25 centimeters, and its weight is over 250 grams.

The body of the sopa is elongated, laterally compressed. The eyes are large and occupy 30 percent of the head. The fish has a classic river color. A silvery body color with a darker back and a lighter abdomen.

Spawning sopa

Males mature earlier than females, their sexual maturity occurs at the 4th year of life, and in females at the 5th. Fish spawn in the same river where it lives, with the difference that it rises upstream. This happens in the spring, after the water warms up to 10-12 degrees Celsius.

The ideal spawning grounds for sopa are floodplain rifts. As soon as the water temperature warms up to 15 degrees, the females will start spawning. The caviar is swept onto the pebble bottom. Calf diameter up to 2 millimeters. The number of eggs depends on the size of the female, the numbers vary from 8 thousand eggs to 25 thousand. The eggs are very sticky. This allows them to linger on stones until the larvae hatch. Sopa juveniles live for some time in places where it emerged from the egg. The fish feeds on zooplankton.

The first year of life of the fry is characterized by rapid growth. Small fish grow up to 5 centimeters. Unfortunately, not all eggs are destined to become fish. Some of the eggs are eaten by other fish, and white-eyed fry are a delicacy for many predators. After spawning, adult fish do not take care of the offspring. After spawning, flocks of sopas slide down the river to their habitat. At this time, the so-called fish disease begins. It lasts about 1-2 weeks. At this time, the fish spends at the bottom. After spawning disease, the fish has a period of zhora. White-eye is actively eating away.

Sopa habitats

Sopa lives in the European zone of Russia. The basins of the Black Sea, Caspian, Volgograd, Kuibyshev and Saratov reservoirs are places where you can find populations of this amazing small fish.

It is extremely rare for fish to be found in the Kama River and its tributaries. The fish left the Moskva River. It has become a rarity in the Tvertsa River and Lake Seliger.

In the rivers of Karelia, fish is also considered very rare. Because of this, it is included in the Red Data Book of this region.

Fish live in small flocks, and they gather in huge flocks during the spawning period. The fish is truly riverine, however, there is one semi-anadromous form, and it lives in the lower reaches of the Volga. For life he chooses clean rivers with medium or strong currents. The fish does not live in stagnant water. The fish is extremely demanding on the condition of the bottom. She will not live in rivers with silted bottom and heightened vegetation. The ideal bottom is rocky.

Sopa lifestyle

Sopa's lifestyle, behavior, nutrition depends on the season. Spring is the time for the awakening of nature and white-eyed women as well. With the beginning of the ice melting, the white-eyed woman becomes active. Remains in wintering grounds until the ice completely melts. They try to hold on to the rifts, a huge number of benthic organisms, which form part of their diet, are brought in by the current. Sexually mature fish begins to prepare for spawning in the spring. This happens after the water warms up to certain temperatures. The fish gather in schools and begin to move upstream. After spawning, the fish returns to their habitats and stops feeding for 1-2 weeks. By mid-May, the fish begins to actively eat off after spawning, feed both during the day and at night. The white-eyed fish is omnivorous and in the spring its diet is dominated by animal organisms: insects, gobies, larvae, crustaceans.

In the summer, the white-eye is active during the day. Numerous flocks are divided into groups. White-eyed fish feeds from the bottom, as the current carries bottom organisms in large quantities.

With the arrival of autumn, the fish gather in large steel. With a decrease in temperature, fish slide downstream into areas of greater depth. In shallow waters, fish are found, but not so often. In late autumn, the fish finds shelter for wintering. Selects bottom grooves. It feeds around the clock until freezing.

In winter, the sopa is inactive. He does not stop eating, but the amount of necessary food is sharply reduced. It feeds on larvae and detritus under stones. The structure of her mouth allows her to rake in river sand along with food.

Regardless of the season, adults prefer deep areas, while juveniles live in shallow water. Water for life needs clean, flowing water. The bottom prefers rocky or pebbly, with minimal flora.

White-eyed fish is schooling, sedentary.

Methods for catching sopa

If the fisherman knows the peculiarities of the behavior of the sop at one time or another of the year, then you can catch it all year round. She bites both in winter and in summer, the main thing is to choose the right nozzle and know the features of this fish. Sopa is a cautious fish. Fishing requires concentration, silence and lack of sudden movements in anticipation of a bite. Fishing with a bottom tackle will be catchy: feeder rods, float rod and tackle.

Feeder tackle with a middle class rod is perfect for catching dop from the shore. Spiral feeder 50 g, as it holds the bait better. A bait mix suitable for bream with the addition of flour is suitable for the feeder.

In winter, the fish moves to places saturated with oxygen, it is there that there is a chance to catch it. Anglers need to find the place where the fish have stopped and then the bite will be ensured. As soon as the bite stops, you should look for a new place where the fish went. The success of winter fishing entirely depends on the fisherman's acquaintance with the reservoir: the bottom, the relief. In winter, the snake bites exclusively on the animal nozzle.

In the spring, the sopa will give preference to a high-calorie attachment, for example, a bloodworm. It should be planted in several pieces. In the summer, he takes both vegetable bait and animals. In warm weather, it takes maggots perfectly. With the approach of cold weather, it will bite only on the nozzle of animal origin. Bloodworms are a versatile bait in cold weather. Hooks must be chosen with barbs, and put on bloodworms 3-4 pieces. Hook size no more than No. 4. The white-eyed fish is cunning and dexterous, it can easily remove the bait from the hook without being caught. The bite resembles a bite of a bream.

You can catch a white-eyed spinning rod. Lure and cone spinners are suitable as bait. Ideal color combination for lures: black and white, orange and yellow.

The ideal time for catching white-eye is late morning and early evening. It practically does not bite at night. White-eyed hunting is of sporting interest for many anglers. The fish is very active, agile and dexterous.

The gastronomic value of sopa

White-eye is not an industrial fish for catching. It is rarely caught. However, its meat is extremely tasty and healthy. Those who have tried sopa meat at least once will not forget its taste. The meat is very tender, but it contains a lot of bones. The gastronomic value of sopa lies in the fact that vitamin PP is present in large quantities in its meat. This useful component will protect against vitamin deficiency, weakness, insomnia and digestive problems. Fish meat is useful for lowering cholesterol levels and proper functioning of the hormonal system. In addition, the pulp of sopa is rich in minerals and trace elements. The meat is low in calories and ideal for dietary nutrition. The fish has one advantage that makes it valuable for cooking: it lives in reservoirs with clean water, its meat contains a minimum of toxins. Meat is perishable and should be cooked as soon as possible after harvest. There are many recipes for making white-eyed. It is used boiled, fried, smoked. The most delicious whole dried fish.

The fish live in small populations, so the mass sale of fish is not possible. Sopa is a small and rare fish, the meat of which has excellent taste. Finding and catching her is not an easy task. The gastronomic value of the fish, together with its inaccessibility, make it a desirable catch for fishermen. Fishermen experience real excitement in the hope of catching a sopa.

External signs of an oriental white-eyed

The eastern white-eyed is a small bird about 8-9 cm long with a yellowish-olive upper body, white rings around the eyes, and a yellow throat. The belly is whitish-gray, but may have a yellow tint in some subspecies.

The tail of the bird is greenish, the head is yellow. The wings are rounded, the legs are strong. Outwardly, males and females practically do not differ from each other.

This species includes common subspecies, which are recognized by the color and the degree of presence of shades of yellow in their plumage.

Habitats of the eastern white-eyed

The eastern white-eyed moth lives in mountain forests, inhabits mangroves and gardens. Prefers open landscapes. It is found in a wide range of habitats from shrubs to moist forests, even settling on islands. They are extremely rare in dry desert areas.

The eastern white-eyed is a 12 cm long bird.

Distribution of the eastern white-eyed

The Eastern White-Eye is found over a vast area in Southwest Asia. This bird species is distributed in Afghanistan eastward to China, India, Indonesia. Lives in Australia. In Russia, the white-eyed brown-sided, a close relative of tropical birds, is found.

She lives in the rich in food floodplain forests of the Amur and in the Primorsky Territory. Winters in Indonesia.

Features of the behavior of the eastern white-eyed

Eastern white-eyed can be detected by a sonorous whistle, reminiscent of the cry of a siskin. The birds themselves are completely invisible in dense foliage, and one must look very carefully to see small reddish birds with green backs and sides in the crown of trees.

Along with insects, the eastern white-eye feeds on nectar and various fruits.

Outside the nesting period, eastern white-eyed moths gather in flocks with a number of birds of more than several hundred individuals. Birds usually hide inside the crowns of trees, they collect ants and other insects, and also eat their eggs and larvae. Their silhouettes, with their characteristic yellow-green-white plumage, flicker between the branches.

During feeding, the members of the flock constantly call each other, often yelling all together, making a loud noise. Sometimes oriental white-eyed women begin to sing, repeating the same song many times.

Listen to the voice of the eastern white-eyed

Although eastern white-eyed animals do not make long flights, with a favorable wind they are able to reach new territories, including coastal islands.

These birds are quite often included in mixed flocks of small birds of different species and feed in parks, gardens, fields.

Wild populations of this species were captured by reproducing voice signals and using live baits. Eastern white-eyed birds do not stand on ceremony with birds that have settled nearby, and sometimes steal building material from the nests of other birds. There are known cases of interspecific feeding of paradise flycatcher chicks by white-eyed

Reproduction of the eastern white-eyed

The breeding season for eastern white-eyed moths lasts from February to September, but peaks in April.

The male announces the occupied territory with his singing. Both birds build a nest in the form of a compact deep bowl suspended like in a hammock at a fork in a tree, in bushes or on bamboo stalks. It takes 4 days to set it up. Moss, spider webs, lichens and plant fibers are used as building materials.

Wild populations of this species were found even in California in the 1980s.

The female lays two to four pale blue eggs for several days, one after the other. The eggs hatch for about two weeks. Both birds feed offspring, which fledge after 10 days. Chicks are fed with insects. After two weeks, the chicks leave the nest and the parents re-lay their eggs in the same nest.

Nutrition of the eastern white-eyed

Eastern white-eyed birds are mainly insectivorous birds. Along with insects, they feed on nectar and various fruits and seeds.

Keeping eastern white-eyed in captivity

The Eastern White-Eye is a very popular captive breeding bird. Fans of this type of nectar beetle of Asian origin are happy to keep birds in cages.

White-eyed women adhere to a certain diet. They are fed with sweet juice, pieces of fruit, small invertebrates and special food for nectar beetles.

Eastern white-eyed women love to swim in water, so birds are given liquid food in a sealed container, otherwise the birds can swim in sweet juice. They breed well in captivity.

During the breeding season, the male sings soft cheerful trills, and the female collects building material for building a nest: cobwebs, pieces of plant debris. There are 2-4 eggs in a clutch. The incubation period is 12 days. The chicks remain in the nest for the same amount of time. During the breeding season, eastern white-eyed moths are intensively fed with small live food rich in protein.

The Eastern White-Eye is a very popular captive breeding bird.

The value of eastern white-eyed in ecosystems

Eastern white-eyed white-eyed flowers that visit in search of insects that live on plants, such as thrips, and possibly nectar, which they feed on. At the same time, the head of the eastern white-eyed is often stained with pollen, which leads to errors in identifying the species. Eastern white-eyed moths sometimes bathe in the dew that has gathered on the leaves.

During the nesting period, palm squirrels attack the eastern white-eyed but, despite their small size, the birds defend themselves together. In food chains, white-eyed white-eyed animals serve as food for a variety of predators, including bats and birds of the Kingfisher species. Endoparasites Haemosporidia of the genus Dorisa and Haemoproteus and Dorisa have been found in birds, although they rarely cause death.

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This species has traditionally been included in the genus Zosterops, but genetic studies have revealed its affinity to species from other genera, including the dwarf bird Oculocincta squamifrons.

1. Distribution

They live on the Lesser Sunda Islands in Indonesia, being their endemic. The natural habitat of these birds is subtropical or tropical humid lowland forests.

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